In the year 1863, Ismail Pacha succeeded his brother Said as the fifth hereditary Viceroy of Egypt. He immediately set about a series of wide-ranging political and economic reforms based upon the objectives of Mehemet Ali, with whom the modern history of Egypt is said to begin. Although in the long term the policies of Ismail Pacha were to bear fruit, his immediate plans met with disappointment and catastrophe. With means inadequate to meet his ends, the debts he incurred increased to massive proportions, while a series of changes to the laws of succession, intended to increase his authority, only temporarily delayed the inevitable collapse of the economy. In this book, the author traces the development of Egypt under the rule of Ismail Pacha up to his bankruptcy in 1876. There follows a study of the region under a succession of British and joint British-French administrations whose blunderings led to rebellion. The republication of this work, first published in 1881, will be especially welcomed by students of modern Egyptian history.